Hijacking is extremely rare, but it does
happen. It is well to consider how you should react if you end up being in the wrong place
at the wrong time.
The physical takeover of the aircraft by the
hijackers may be accompanied by noise, commotion, and possibly shooting and yelling, or it
may be quiet and methodical with little more than an announcement by a crew member. Either
way, how you and others react during these first few minutes of the hijacking
may be crucial to the outcome.
The guidance below focuses on avoiding
violence and achieving a peaceful resolution to a hijacking. This guidance
was developed prior to September 11, 2001 when two hijacked airliners were
flown into the World Trade Center and one into the Pentagon. Since then,
there has been considerable public discussion of a more active and
aggressive reaction to the initial announcement that a plane is being
hijacked. As of this writing, the U.S. Government has not developed new
guidelines for how to react to a hijacking. The appropriate reaction may
depend upon the presumed purpose of the hijacking -- the hijackers' goal a
suicide mission to use the airplane itself as a bomb, take hostages to
gain publicity for a political movement, or a simple desire to escape to
Remember that the hijackers will be extremely
nervous and probably as scared as you are. Although they may appear calm, they cannot be
trusted to behave reasonably or rationally. Fear can trigger a disaster. One wrong move by
either a victim or a hijacker could easily set off a defensive spate of violence. To
promote a peaceful resolution of the situation, follow these guidelines.
- Stay calm and encourage others around you to
do the same.
- Do not challenge the hijackers physically or
verbally. Comply with their instructions. Do not struggle or try to escape unless you are
absolutely certain of success.
- If shooting occurs, keep your head down or
drop to the floor.
Once the takeover of the aircraft has
occurred, passengers may be separated by citizenship, sex, race, etc. Your passport may be
confiscated and your carry-on luggage ransacked. The aircraft may be diverted to another
country. The hijackers may enter into a negotiation phase which could last indefinitely
and/or the crew may be forced to fly the aircraft to a different destination. During this
phase passengers may be used as a bargaining tool in negotiations, lives may be
threatened, or a number of passengers may be released in exchange for fuel,
landing/departure rights, food, etc. This will be the longest phase of the hijacking
- If you are told to keep your head down or
maintain another body position, talk yourself into relaxing into the position. You may
need to stay that way for some time.
- Be aware that all hijackers may not
reveal themselves at the same time. A lone hijacker may be used to draw
out security personnel for neutralization by other hijackers.
- Prepare yourself mentally and emotionally for
a long ordeal with possible verbal or physical abuse, lack of food and
drink, and unsanitary conditions.
- Blend in with the other airline passengers.
Avoid eye contact with your captors. Don't draw attention to yourself
with sudden body movements, verbal remarks, or hostile looks.
- If addressed by the hijackers, respond in a
calm tone of voice. If interrogated, keep answers short and limited to nonpolitical
topics. Minimize the importance of your job. Give innocuous reasons for traveling. Never
admit to any accusations.
- Do not attempt to hide your passport or
belongings. If you are carrying both an official passport and a tourist
passport, give your tourist passport in response to a general demand for
identification. Confirm your military status if directly confronted with
the fact. In that case, be prepared to explain that you always travel on
your personal passport and that no deceit was intended.
- Use your time wisely by observing the
characteristics and behavior of the hijackers, mentally attach nicknames to each one and
notice their dress, facial features and temperaments. Occupy your mind by memorizing this
information so that you can report it after your release.
- If you or a nearby passenger are in need of
assistance due to illness or discomfort, solicit the assistance of a crew member first --
do not attempt to approach a hijacker unless similar assistance has been rendered by them
for other passengers.
- If you are singled out by the hijackers, be
responsive but do not volunteer information.
The last phase of the hijacking is
resolution, either by a hostage rescue team or through negotiation. In the latter
instance, the hijackers may simply surrender to authorities or abandon the aircraft, crew
and passengers. The following guidelines apply in the case of a rescue operation. The
rescue may be similar to the hijacker's takeover -- noisy, chaotic, and possibly
with shooting. The
rescue force is re-taking control of the aircraft.
The termination of any hijacking incident is
extremely tense. If an assault force attempts a rescue, it is imperative that you remain
calm and out of the way. Make no sudden moves or take any action by which you could be
mistaken for a terrorist and risk being injured or killed.
- If you hear shots fired inside or outside the
aircraft, immediately take a protective position put your head down or drop to the
- If instructed by a rescue force to move, do so
quickly, putting your hands up in the air or behind your head.
- If fire or smoke appears, attempt to get
emergency exits open and use the inflatable slides or exit onto the wing.
- Once you are on the tarmac, follow the
instructions of the rescue force or local authorities. If neither is there to guide you,
move as quickly as possible away from the aircraft and eventually move towards the
terminal or control tower area.
- Initially, the rescue force may have no way of
knowing whether you are a hijacker or a victim. They may treat you as a hijacker or
co-conspirator until they can determine that you are not part of the hijacking team.
- Cooperate with local authorities and members
of the U.S. Embassy, Consulate or other U.S. agencies in relating information about the
Related Topic: DoD Code of